5.2.1 A sponsor may transfer any or all of the sponsor’s trial-related duties and functions to a CRO, but the ultimate responsibility for the quality and integrity of the trial data always resides with the sponsor. The CRO should implement quality assurance and quality control.
5.2.2 Any trial-related duty and function that is transferred to and assumed by a CRO should be specified in writing.
5.2.3 Any trial-related duties and functions not specifically transferred to and assumed by a CRO are retained by the sponsor.
5.2.4 All references to a sponsor in this guideline also apply to a CRO to the extent that a CRO has assumed the trial related duties and functions of a sponsor.