A Neoadjuvant Immunologic Study of Androgen Deprivation Therapy Combined With a GM-CSF-secreting Allogeneic Prostate Cancer Vaccine and Low-dose Cyclophosphamide in Men With High-risk Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

A Neoadjuvant Study of Androgen Ablation Combined With Cyclophosphamide and GVAX Vaccine for Localized Prostate Cancer



Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins

Oversight Info

Has Dmc


Brief Summary

This research is being done to see if an investigational prostate cancer vaccine, called
GVAX, can safely be given together with a single intravenous injection of a drug called
cyclophosphamide to men that will undergo surgery to remove their cancerous prostate glands
who have also received standard hormonal therapy.

Detailed Description

Cancer immunotherapy refers broadly to approaches which attempt to treat cancer by activating
immune responses directed against malignant tissue. Prostate GVAX is an allogeneic cell-based
prostate cancer vaccine composed of two irradiated cell lines (PC3 and LNCaP) that have been
genetically modified to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
The release of GM-CSF by these modified tumor cells serves to recruit dendritic cells which
then present tumor antigens to T-cells, thus initiating antitumor immune responses.

However, abundant preclinical data show that, when used alone, cell-based immunotherapy is
unable to break specific T-cell tolerance in tumor-bearing hosts. Studies in an autochthonous
prostate cancer mouse model have shown that giving low-dose cyclophosphamide prior to a
cell-based GM-CSF-secreting vaccine abrogates immune tolerance through augmentation of CD8+ T
cell infiltration in the prostate, transient depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and
increased expression of dendritic cell maturation markers. Enhancement of antitumor immunity
has also been observed in other preclinical models where cyclophosphamide was given in
sequence with GM-CSF-secreting immunotherapy for the treatment of breast and pancreatic
cancers. These preclinical data are supported by early-phase clinical trials combining GVAX
with low-dose cyclophosphamide in pancreatic and breast cancers.

Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) itself has
profound effects on the host immune system, resulting in thymic regeneration and enhancement
of antitumor immunity. In addition, preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate that ADT
augments prostate cancer-specific immune responses induced by immunotherapy, suggesting that
ADT may act synergistically with immunotherapy. Based on data from mouse models as well as
human clinical trials, it has been suggested that prostate cancer immunotherapy may be most
effective when administered in the setting of an androgen-suppressed environment.

Building on these findings, investigators have designed a study to assess the use of ADT
given alone or administered following immunization with low-dose cyclophosphamide and
prostate GVAX, in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Investigators aim (1) to
determine whether ADT is immunogenic in men with localized prostate cancer by evaluating
T-cell infiltration in harvested prostate glands; (2) to determine whether administering ADT
after low-dose cyclophosphamide and prostate GVAX augments immune infiltration into the
prostate gland; and (3) to investigate whether this combinatorial immuno-hormonal approach is
safe and feasible. Investigators hypothesize that the combination of ADT and
cyclophosphamide/GVAX will produce significantly greater antitumor immune responses than
would ADT used alone.

Overall Status

Active, not recruiting

Start Date


Completion Date


Primary Completion Date



Phase 1/Phase 2

Study Type


Primary Outcome


Time Frame

Intraprostatic CD8+ T cell infiltration
2 years
Number of participants with adverse events
2 years

Secondary Outcome


Time Frame

Intraprostatic CD4+ T cell and Treg infiltration
2 years
Quantification of tissue androgen concentrations
2 years
Quantification of markers of apoptosis
2 years
Pathological complete responses
2 years
Serum antibodies to prostate-associated antigens
2 years
PSA response rate and time-to-PSA-recurrence
2 years





Intervention Type


Intervention Name


Degarelix Acetate is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist. It works by decreasing the amount of testosterone in the body,which the tumor needs to grow.

Arm Group Label

Arm A

Arm B

Other Name


Intervention Type


Intervention Name


Cyclophosphamide as a potent enhancer of immune responses to GVAX. cyclophosphamide is used as an immune suppressor in many autoimmune disorders.

Arm Group Label

Arm B

Other Name



Intervention Type


Intervention Name


GVAX is GM-CSF-secreting allogeneic cell-based vaccine as immunotherapy for prostate cancer

Arm Group Label

Arm B

Other Name

GM-CSF-secreting cell-based (PC3/LNCaP)immunotherapy



Inclusion Criteria:

- Histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate (clinical stage T1c-T3b, N0,
M0) without involvement of lymph nodes, bone, or visceral organs

- Initial prostate biopsy is available for central pathologic review, and is confirmed
to show at least 2 positive cores and a maximum Gleason sum of ≥ 7

- Radical prostatectomy has been scheduled at Johns Hopkins Hospital

- Age ≥ 21 years

- ECOG performance status 0-1, or Karnofsky score ≥ 70%

- Adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function:

- WBC > 3,000 cells/mm3

- ANC > 1,500 cells/mm3

- Hemoglobin > 9.0 g/dL

- Platelet count > 100,000 cells/mm3

- Serum creatinine < 2.0 mg/dL

- Serum bilirubin < 2 mg/dL

- ALT < 2 × upper limit of normal (ULN)

- AST < 2 × ULN

- Alkaline phosphatase < 2 × ULN

- Willingness to provide written informed consent and HIPAA authorization for the
release of personal health information, and the ability to comply with the study
requirements (note: HIPAA authorization will be included in the informed consent)

- Willingness to use barrier contraception from the time of cyclophosphamide and/or GVAX
administration until the time of prostatectomy.

Exclusion Criteria:

- Presence of known lymph node involvement or distant metastases

- Other histologic types of prostate cancers such as ductal, sarcomatous, lymphoma,
small cell, and neuroendocrine tumors

- Prior radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, biologic therapy, or chemotherapy for
prostate cancer

- Prior immunotherapy/vaccine therapy for prostate cancer

- Previous or concurrent use of cyclophosphamide

- Concomitant treatment with other hormonal therapy or 5a-reductase inhibitors

- Current use of systemic corticosteroids or use of corticosteroids within 4 weeks of
enrollment (inhaled corticosteroids for asthma or COPD are permitted)

- Use of experimental agents for prostate cancer within the past 3 months

- Known allergy to cyclophosphamide or G-CSF/GM-CSF

- Known hypersensitivity to materials of bovine origin (e.g. fetal bovine serum), or
other components of GVAX which include DMSO and hydroxyethyl starch as well as small
amounts of porcine trypsin and DNase

- History or presence of autoimmune disease requiring systemic immunosuppression
(including but not limited to: inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus
erythematosus, vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, multiple sclerosis,
hemolytic anemia, Sjögren syndrome, and sarcoidosis)

- Other concurrent malignancies, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancers and
superficial bladder cancer

- Uncontrolled major active infectious, cardiovascular, pulmonary, hematologic, or
psychiatric illnesses that would make the patient a poor study candidate

- Known prior or current history of HIV and/or hepatitis B/C



Minimum Age

21 Years

Maximum Age


Healthy Volunteers


Overall Official

Last Name



Emmanual Antonarakis, M.D
Principal Investigator
Johns Hopkins University



The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
Baltimore Maryland 21231 United States

Location Countries


United States

Verification Date


Lastchanged Date


Firstreceived Date


Responsible Party

Responsible Party Type


Has Expanded Access


Condition Browse

Secondary Id


Number Of Arms


Intervention Browse

Mesh Term




Arm Group

Arm Group Label

Arm A

Arm Group Type

Active Comparator


In Arm A, an identical dose of degarelix acetate will be administered 14 (±3) days prior to surgery. A telephone follow-up interview (or an in-person clinic visit) to evaluate for adverse events will occur 28 (±21) days after prostatectomy. Patients will then be followed by their urologists according to standard institutional practices, but will require PSA evaluations every 3 (±1) months during year 1 and every 6 (±2) months during years 2-3.

Arm Group Label

Arm B

Arm Group Type



In Arm B, Cyclophosphamide will be given at a dose of 200 mg/m2 as a single intravenous infusion. 1 day later, prostate GVAX will be administered as five 0.8-mL intradermal injections of PC3 (2.5 × 108 cells) and five 0.5-mL intradermal injections of LNCaP (2.5 × 108 cells), for a total dose of 5 × 108 cells. On day 14, Degarelix acetate will be administered as three 80 mg subcutaneous injections, for a total dose of 240 mg. Prostate glands will be harvested 14 (±3) days later, at the time of radical prostatectomy, and prostate tissue will be examined for the primary endpoint.

Firstreceived Results Date


Firstreceived Results Disposition Date


Study Design Info



Intervention Model

Parallel Assignment

Primary Purpose



None (Open Label)

Study First Submitted

September 14, 2012

Study First Submitted Qc

September 27, 2012

Study First Posted

October 1, 2012

Last Update Submitted

March 13, 2018

Last Update Submitted Qc

March 13, 2018

Last Update Posted

March 14, 2018

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this data on August 22, 2018


Conditions usually refer to a disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury. In ClinicalTrials.gov, conditions include any health issue worth studying, such as lifespan, quality of life, health risks, etc.

Interventions refer to the drug, vaccine, procedure, device, or other potential treatment being studied. Interventions can also include less intrusive possibilities such as surveys, education, and interviews.
Study Phase

Most clinical trials are designated as phase 1, 2, 3, or 4, based on the type of questions that study is seeking to answer:

In Phase 1 (Phase I) clinical trials, researchers test a new drug or treatment in a small group of people (20-80) for the first time to evaluate its safety, determine a safe dosage range, and identify side effects.

In Phase 2 (Phase II) clinical trials, the study drug or treatment is given to a larger group of people (100-300) to see if it is effective and to further evaluate its safety.

In Phase 3 (Phase III) clinical trials, the study drug or treatment is given to large groups of people (1,000-3,000) to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, compare it to commonly used treatments, and collect information that will allow the drug or treatment to be used safely.

In Phase 4 (Phase IV) clinical trials, post marketing studies delineate additional information including the drug's risks, benefits, and optimal use.

These phases are defined by the Food and Drug Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations.

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