Primary Mechanisms Underlying the Effects of Oral vs. Non-oral Contraceptives on the GH/IGF-1 Axis and Bone Metabolism in Young Women

Effects of Oral vs. Non-oral Contraceptives on the GH/IGF-1 Axis

Sponsors

Lead sponsor: Penn State University

Collaborator: Massachusetts General Hospital
Purdue University

Source Penn State University
Brief Summary

This study will determine whether the negative effects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) therapy on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF-1) axis and bone turnover are dependent on the route of administration such that an attenuation of these effects is observed when a comparable dose of non-oral transdermal contraceptive (TDC) and contraceptive vaginal ring therapy (CVR) are also tested.

Detailed Description

This study is a preclinical, multi-site trial (Penn State University and Purdue University) that will determine whether the negative effects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) therapy on bone turnover are dependent on the route of administration such that an attenuation of these effects is observed when a comparable dose of non-oral transdermal contraceptive (TDC) therapy and contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) therapy are also tested. Millions of women use COC therapy for birth control purposes or regulation of menstrual cycles. TDC and CVR therapies are relatively new FDA-approved contraceptive alternatives to COC. The purpose of the proposed project is to address the potential mechanism(s) by which oral ethinyl estradiol (EE) may negatively impair bone via "first pass" effects on the liver and compare these effects to transdermally-administered and vaginally-administered EE in young women. We will assess mechanistic effects by way of 2-day serial sampling and by an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) generation test. The IGF-1 generation test was developed over 20 years ago and is currently used to diagnose growth hormone (GH) insensitivity. IGF-1 generation tests may also be used to amplify effects not observable by the assessment of fasting or serial concentrations of systemic IGF-1(secreted by the liver) and its associated binding proteins. This study will be the first study to examine the physiological mechanisms whereby the route of estrogen administration affects the GH/IGF-1 axis and bone turnover in young women.

The overall purpose of this study is to explore differences in liver metabolism and bone turnover of oral versus transdermal and vaginal contraceptive therapy. In an effort to expose the route-dependent effects of oral versus transdermal and vaginal contraceptive therapy on liver and bone metabolism, we will examine the effects of ethinyl estradiol on serially-assessed fasting concentrations of the GH/IGF-1 axis and bone turnover and explore physiological mechanisms underlying hepatic responsiveness to oral versus transdermal and vaginal contraceptive therapy using an IGF-1 Generation Test as a probe.

Overall Status Completed
Start Date January 2015
Completion Date December 2018
Primary Completion Date December 2017
Phase Phase 4
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Changes in Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF Binding Proteins (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3), and Acid Labile Subunit (ALS) Baseline and post-49 days of contraceptive therapy
Secondary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Changes in Bone Turnover Markers Baseline and post-49 days of contraceptive therapy
Changes in GH-stimulated IGF-1 Secretion 49 days of contraceptive therapy
Enrollment 60
Condition
Intervention

Intervention type: Drug

Intervention name: Combined Oral Contraceptive

Description: The proposed study is a preclinical, multi-site trial comparing the short-term effects of oral and non-oral ethinyl estradiol on the GH/IGF-1 axis and bone metabolism. Using a prospective repeated measures design, we will test the effects of 2 cycles of combined oral contraceptive (Apri or Reclipsen) on the GH/IGF-1 axis.

Arm group label: Combined Oral Contraceptives (COC)

Other name: Apri (Reclipsen)

Intervention type: Drug

Intervention name: Transdermal Contraceptive

Description: The proposed study is a preclinical, multi-site trial comparing the short-term effects of oral and non-oral ethinyl estradiol on the GH/IGF-1 axis and bone metabolism. Using a prospective repeated measures design, we will test the effects of 2 cycles of a transdermal contraceptive (Xulane) on the GH/IGF-1 axis.

Arm group label: Transdermal Contraceptive (TDC)

Other name: Xulane

Intervention type: Drug

Intervention name: Contraceptive Vaginal Ring

Description: The proposed study is a preclinical, multi-site trial comparing the short-term effects of oral and non-oral ethinyl estradiol on the GH/IGF-1 axis and bone metabolism. Using a prospective repeated measures design, we will test the effects of 2 cycles of vaginal ring contraceptive (Nuva Ring) on the GH/IGF-1 axis.

Arm group label: Contraceptive Vaginal Ring (CVR)

Other name: Nuva Ring

Eligibility

Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria:

1. Female

2. Age 18-30 yrs

3. BMI 18-29 kg/m2

4. Non-smoking

5. Not using hormonal contraceptives for at least 6 months prior

6. Not currently pregnant nor intending to become pregnant in the next 6 months

7. Not lactating

8. No apparent metabolic, endocrine, musculoskeletal, or severe psychiatric disease

9. Willing to adhere to maintenance of current exercise training and diet and remain weight stable (±2 kg) during study

10. Variable physical activity acceptable, but mode must be primarily weight bearing

11. At least 9 menses in past 12 months

12. Willing to quit taking any current nutritional supplements and take Calcium and Vitamin D supplements for the duration of the study.

13. If 21 or older, a normal Pap smear must be confirmed.

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Non-weight bearing exercise as primary mode of physical activity

2. Known or suspected metabolic or endocrine disease

3. Pregnant

4. Currently consuming large amounts of soy products

5. Regular consumption of grapefruit juice

6. Current clinical eating disorder or other axis 1 psychiatric or bipolar disorders

7. Oral or hormonal contraceptive use in the last 6 months

8. Currently amenorrheic

9. Hyperparathyroidism

10. Liver or renal disease

11. Evidence of malabsorption or skeletal disorder

12. Thyroid abnormalities (controlled hypothyroidism acceptable)

13. Chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)

14. Taking medications known to have interactions with contraceptive therapy

15. Division I Athlete, on or off season

16. Other Exclusion Criteria proposed by the World Health Organization COC Contraindications (Grossman, 2011)

Gender: Female

Minimum age: 18 Years

Maximum age: 30 Years

Healthy volunteers: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Overall Official
Last Name Role Affiliation
Mary Jane De Souza, PhD Principal Investigator The Pennsylvania State University
Location
facility
Women's Health and Exercise Laboratories, The Pennsylvania State University
Location Countries

United States

Verification Date

February 2020

Responsible Party

Responsible party type: Principal Investigator

Investigator affiliation: Penn State University

Investigator full name: Mary Jane DeSouza

Investigator title: Professor of Kinesiology and Physiology

Keywords
Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Number Of Arms 4
Arm Group

Arm group label: Combined Oral Contraceptives (COC)

Arm group type: Experimental

Description: Apri (or generic equivalent - Reclipsen) (30µg/d EE, 150 µg/d desogestrel) is a monophasic dosing regimen of 21 active and 7 placebo pills. On Day 1 of the Intervention, participants in the COC group will begin taking the COC pill. Each participant in this group will ingest active pills from the first pack each day for the first 21 days. Pills ingested on days 22 through 28 are placebo pills. A second pill pack will begin on day 29 and pills with active ingredients will be ingested from the second pack each day for days 29-49. On day 50, the participants will immediately begin a 3rd pill pack, if the post-study testing is still occurring, and will ingest a pill with active ingredients from the third pack for days 50-56 (or for as long as the post-study testing is occurring).

Arm group label: Transdermal Contraceptive (TDC)

Arm group type: Experimental

Description: Participants in the TDC group will apply a 20 cm2 patch (Xulane: 20µg/d EE,150µg/d norelgestromin) to the abdomen, upper arm or buttock. The patch will be changed once weekly on the same day each week for weeks 1-3 (days 1-21, removed on day 22) and weeks 5-8 (days 29-56). Week 4 (days 22-28) will be a patch-free week. As soon as the post-study testing is complete, subjects will remove the patch.

Arm group label: Contraceptive Vaginal Ring (CVR)

Arm group type: Experimental

Description: Participants in the CVR group (NuvaRing - 15µg/d EE/120µg/d etonogestrel) will insert a vaginal ring into the vagina on Day 1 of the intervention. The vaginal ring will be removed and discarded after 3 weeks of continuous use (days 1-21 of continuous use and removed on day 22). There will be one week (days 22-28) that will be ring-free. A new ring will be inserted for days 29-49. On day 50, the second ring will be removed, and a third ring will be immediately inserted into the vagina (if the post-study testing is still occurring). The third ring will remain in the vagina for the last week of the post-study period (days 50-56). As soon as the post-study testing is complete, subjects will remove the ring.

Arm group label: Control Group

Arm group type: No Intervention

Description: The Control group will complete all procedures with the exception of contraceptive therapy.

Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention model: Parallel Assignment

Primary purpose: Basic Science

Masking: None (Open Label)

Source: ClinicalTrials.gov