A Randomized-Controlled Trial to Determine the Effects on Blood Pressure of A Reduced-sodium Added-potassium Salt Substitute Among Adults With Hypertension in India

The Effects on Blood Pressure of Salt Substitute Among Adults With Hypertension in India

Sponsors

Lead sponsor: The George Institute

Source The George Institute
Brief Summary

Blood pressure is a key modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in India. Drug therapies are highly effective and are recommended by local guidelines to reduce the risks of serious cardiovascular complications. Behavioural approaches to blood pressure control based upon sodium reduction are also recommended but there are no interventions proven effective in India.

Mean sodium intake in India is about 5g/day (equivalent to about 12.5g salt) which is, more than double World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Reduced sodium, added potassium salt substitutes have favourable effects on blood pressure in settings where discretionary salt use is high, but have not been tested in India. This single-site, Salt Substitute on blood pressure in India Study will investigate the effects of reduced sodium added potassium salt substitution on blood pressure in rural areas where hypertension is a prevalent disease problem and additional, scalable and affordable interventions are required. The primary objective is to assess the effects of salt substitute on SBP at 3 months follow-up. The secondary objectives are to determine effects on DBP, urinary sodium and potassium levels and to determine acceptability of the salt substitute.

The study will be a double-blinded, randomized-controlled trial done in the Hyderabad region amongst adult volunteers with a history of hypertension diagnosed by a health professional. The main exclusion criteria will be known serous kidney disease or use of potassium containing medications by the individual or others living in the household. Written informed consent will be obtained from potential participants followed by baseline data collection. Eligible individuals will then be assigned at random to receive double-blind salt or salt substitute which will be used to replace all dietary salt used for cooking and seasoning over the next 3 months. Follow-up will be at one and three months after randomisation for blood pressure, urinary electrolytes and acceptability of the intervention.

Detailed Description

Excess sodium intake is associated with high blood pressure which is a leading risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in India. Drug therapies are highly effective interventions for blood pressure lowering and are recommended by local guidelines to reduce the risks of serious cardiovascular complications. Behavioural approaches to blood pressure control based upon sodium reduction are also recommended but there are no interventions proven effective and sustainable in India.

Mean sodium intake in India is about 5g/day (equivalent to about 12.5g salt) which is more than double World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Reduced sodium, added potassium salt substitutes have favourable effects on blood pressure in settings where discretionary salt use is high, but have not been tested in India. Salt substitution is of particular interest because it has great potential for scaling in under-served and resource poor settings.

This study will investigate the effects of salt substitution on blood pressure in rural areas where hypertension is a highly prevalent disease problem and additional, scalable and affordable blood pressure lowering interventions are required. Accordingly, the primary objective is to assess the effects of a reduced sodium, added potassium salt substitute compared to usual salt on systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 3-months follow-up. The secondary objectives are to determine effects on diastolic blood pressure (DBP), urinary sodium and potassium levels and to determine acceptability of the salt substitute among patients with hypertension.

The study will be a double-blinded, randomized-controlled trial done in the villages of the Hyderabad district amongst adult volunteers with a self-reported history of hypertension. The main exclusion criteria will be known serous kidney disease or use of potassium containing medications by the individual or others living in the household. Written informed consent will be obtained from potential participants followed by baseline data collection. Eligible individuals will then be assigned at random to receive double-blind salt or salt substitute which will be used to replace all dietary salt required for cooking and seasoning in the household over the next 3-months. Follow-up will be at one and three months after randomisation for assessment of blood pressure and acceptability of the intervention, with urinary electrolytes measured at baseline and 3-months.

The sample size will be 440 participants randomized in a 1:1 ratio to intervention or control which will provide more than 80% power (P=0.05) to detect a 5 mmHg or greater difference in SBP between randomized groups. This estimate assumes a mean of 140mmHg and a standard deviation of 20mmHg for SBP at baseline. We will seek to recruit comparable numbers of men and women. Analyses will be done using the principle of intention-to-treat and a repeated measures analysis of variance that incorporates baseline, 1-month and 3-month measures of SBP to maximize the efficiency of the analysis.

Overall Status Recruiting
Start Date November 25, 2019
Completion Date May 25, 2020
Primary Completion Date April 25, 2020
Phase N/A
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Systolic Blood Pressure three months
Secondary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Diastolic Blood Pressure three months
Urinary sodium excretion three months
Urinary potassium excretion three months
Acceptability of the study salt substitute three months
Enrollment 440
Condition
Intervention

Intervention type: Behavioral

Intervention name: Dietary sodium reduction

Description: A supply of a reduced-sodium added-potassium salt substitute

Arm group label: Reduced-sodium added-potassium salt substitute

Eligibility

Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria:

- Male or female aged 18 years or over

- History of hypertension diagnosed by a health professional - hypertension may be self-reported and antihypertensive drugs may or may not be used for management. There is no entry criterion based upon blood pressure measurements made at the baseline survey

- Eat most of their meals in the home

- Consent to participate

Exclusion Criteria:

- Participant or family member is using a potassium-sparing diuretic

- Participant or family member is using a potassium supplement

- Participant or family member has known significant renal dysfunction

- Participant or family member has other reason for concern about use of salt substitute

- Participant is not expected to live longer than 6 months from the date of assessment

- Another member of the household is already enrolled in the study

Gender: All

Minimum age: 18 Years

Maximum age: N/A

Healthy volunteers: No

Overall Official
Overall Contact

Last name: Thout Sudhir Raj

Phone: +91 40 3099 4444

Email: [email protected]

Location
facility status contact The George Institute for Glaobal Health India Thout Sudhir Raj, Master +91 40 3099 4444 [email protected]
Location Countries

India

Verification Date

March 2020

Responsible Party

Responsible party type: Sponsor

Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Number Of Arms 2
Arm Group

Arm group label: Control

Arm group type: No Intervention

Description: Normal salt

Arm group label: Reduced-sodium added-potassium salt substitute

Arm group type: Experimental

Description: salt substitute

Patient Data No
Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention model: Parallel Assignment

Primary purpose: Prevention

Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)

Source: ClinicalTrials.gov