Infliximab Plus Intravenous Immunoglobulin for the Primary Treatment of Kawasaki Disease

Infliximab (Remicade®) Plus Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the Primary Treatment of Patients With Acute Kawasaki Disease


Lead Sponsor: University of California, San Diego

Collaborator: Nationwide Children's Hospital

Source University of California, San Diego
Brief Summary

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the addition of infliximab to standard primary therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and high dose aspirin will reduce resistance to therapy in acute Kawasaki disease (KD).

Detailed Description

KD, an orphan disease of low prevalence in U.S. children, causes significant long term cardiac sequelae in a subset of patients. KD patients that are resistant to therapy are more likely to develop coronary artery abnormalities. This phase III placebo-controlled, multicenter, randomized clinical trial of infliximab plus standard therapy vs. placebo plus standard therapy in acute KD will determine if the addition of infliximab to primary therapy can reduce the percentage of children resistant to therapy.

Overall Status Completed
Start Date March 2009
Completion Date October 2012
Primary Completion Date October 2012
Phase Phase 3
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
The Number of Subjects in Each Arm That Have Persistent or Recrudescent Fever 24 Hours After Completion of the Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Infusion 10 weeks
Secondary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Number of Days of Fever Following Therapy During Study Period (up to 6 Weeks) up to 6 weeks
Change in C-reactive Protein (CRP) From Baseline at 24 Hours After Completion of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) by Study Arm. 24 hours
Change From Baseline in Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Outcomes at Week 2 by Treatment Arm 2 weeks
Enrollment 196

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: Infliximab

Description: 5 mg/kg IV over 2 hours once

Arm Group Label: 1

Other Name: Remicade

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: Placebo

Description: Placebo (same volume as active drug)

Arm Group Label: 2



Inclusion Criteria:

1. All eligible subjects, or legal representative, must provide written informed consent/assent, prior to initiation of any study procedure.

2. Eligible subjects will be infants and children, 4 weeks to 17 years old, who have had fever for 3 to 15 days (illness day 1 = first day of fever ≥ 38.3° C)

3. Patients who meet one of the following sets of criteria will be eligible for enrollment (adapted from AHA guidelines: Newburger et al. 2004):

- Case definition for complete KD: Fever (≥ 38.3°C) for ≥ 3 days and 4/5 standard clinical criteria (Table 1)

- Case definition for incomplete KD: Fever ≥ 5 days and 2-3 clinical criteria plus either C-reactive protein (CRP) ≥ 3.0 mg/dL or ESR ≥40 mm/hr AND ≥ 3 supplemental laboratory criteria: albumin ≤ 3.0 g/dl, anemia for age, ALT ≥ 45, platelet count ≥ 450,000/mm3, white blood cell count ≥ 15,000/mm3, or urinalysis with ≥10 white blood cells/hpf.

- Case definition for incomplete KD with echocardiogram data: Fever ≥ 5 days and <4/5 clinical criteria plus abnormal echocardiogram with z score of LAD or RCA ≥ 2.5

4. Females of childbearing potential and males must be using adequate contraception (abstinence, oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, barrier method with spermicide, or surgical sterilization) throughout the trial.

5. All eligible subjects must have a chest radiograph within one week prior to first infusion of study drug with no evidence of tuberculosis or other infection.

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Have been receiving corticosteroids (i.e. via any route) at doses > 1 mg/kg prednisone equivalent daily.

2. History of tuberculosis (TB) or TB exposure.

3. Have received a BCG vaccination within the past 6 months.

4. History of histoplasmosis or coccidioidomycosis

5. Have received anakinra (Kineret®), etanercept (Enbrel®), or adalimumab (Humira®) within 1 month prior to first study drug administration.

6. Have any chronic disease, except asthma, atopic dermatitis or controlled seizure disorder.

7. Have documented history of current active Hepatitis B or a history of Hepatitis C infection.

8. Have a documented history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

9. Have received a transplanted organ (with the exception of a corneal transplant performed > 3 months prior to the first study drug administration).

10. Have a known malignancy or history of malignancy within the 5-year period prior to first study drug administration (with the exception of basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has been completely excised without evidence of recurrence).

11. Have a history of prior lymphoproliferative disease including lymphoma.

12. Have multiple sclerosis or other central demyelinating disorder.

13. Have received any previous treatment with infliximab or other monoclonal antibodies

14. Have used any investigational drug within 1 month prior to first study drug administration or within 5 half-lives of the investigational agent, whichever is longer.

15. Are participating in another investigative trial, involving investigational agents, during participation in this trial.

16. Have a history of substance abuse (drug or alcohol) within the previous 3 years.

17. Are pregnant, nursing, or planning pregnancy (both men and women) during the trial or within the 6-month period thereafter.

18. Have a known allergy to murine proteins or other chimeric proteins.

19. Patients with ischemic congestive heart failure, defined by ECG changes, elevated Troponin 1 and CPK-MB consistent with myocardial ischemia.

20. Have an abnormal chest radiograph

21. Afebrile for ≥ 48 hours

Gender: All

Minimum Age: N/A

Maximum Age: 17 Years

Healthy Volunteers: No

Overall Official
University of California, San Diego | La Jolla, California, 92093, United States
Nationwide Children's Hospital | Columbus, Ohio, United States
Location Countries

United States

Verification Date

November 2014

Responsible Party

Type: Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation: University of California, San Diego

Investigator Full Name: Jane C. Burns

Investigator Title: Professor

Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Number Of Arms 2
Arm Group

Label: 1

Type: Experimental

Description: Infliximab plus Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)

Label: 2

Type: Placebo Comparator

Description: Placebo plus IVIG

Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment

Primary Purpose: Treatment

Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)