Cladribine With Simultaneous or Delayed Rituximab to Treat Hairy Cell Leukemia

Randomized Trial of Cladribine (CdA) With Simultaneous or Delayed Rituximab to Eliminate Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

Sponsors

Lead Sponsor: National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Source National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Brief Summary

Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is highly responsive to but not curable by cladribine (CdA). HCL responds to rituximab, which is not yet standard therapy for HCL. Patients with the CD25-negative variant (HCLv) respond poorly to initial cladribine but do respond to rituximab in anecdotal reports. Deoxycytidine kinase phosphorylates cladribine to CdATP, which incorporates into DNA, leading to DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which induces apoptosis and either complement or antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC or CDC). Patients in complete remission (CR) to cladribine have minimal residual disease (MRD) by immunohistochemistry of the bone marrow biopsy (BMBx IHC), a risk for early relapse. Tests for HCL MRD in blood or marrow include flow cytometry (FACS) or PCR using consensus primers. The most sensitive HCL MRD test is real-time quantitative PCR using sequence-specific primers (RQ-PCR). In studies with limited follow-up, MRD detected by tests other than RQ-PCR can be eliminated by rituximab after cladribine in greater than 90 percent of patients, but MRD rates after cladribine alone are unknown. Simultaneous cladribine and rituximab might be superior or inferior to delaying rituximab until detection of MRD. Only 4 HCL-specific trials are listed on Cancer.gov: a phase II trial of cladribine followed 4 weeks later by 8 weekly doses of rituximab, and phase I-II trials of recombinant immunotoxins targeting CD22 (BL22, HA22) and CD25 (LMB-2). Objectives: Primary: To determine if HCL MRD differs at 6 months after cladribine with or without rituximab administered concurrently with cladribine. Secondary: - To compare cladribine plus rituximab vs cladribine alone in terms of 1) initial MRD-free survival and disease-free survival, and 2) response to delayed rituximab for relapse, to determine if early rituximab compromises later response. - To determine if MRD levels and tumor markers (soluble CD25 and CD22) after cladribine and/or rituximab correlate with response and clinical endpoints. - To determine, using MRD and tumor marker data, when BMBx can be avoided. - To compare response and MRD after the 1st and 2nd courses of cladribine. - To evaluate the effects of cladribine and rituximab on normal T- and B-cells. - To enhance the study of HCL biology by cloning, sequencing and characterizing monoclonal immunoglobulin rearrangements. Eligibility: HCL with 0-1 prior courses of cladribine and treatment indicated. Design: Cladribine 0.15 mg/Kg/day times 5 doses each by 2hr i.v. infusion (days 1-5) Rituximab 375 mg/m2/week times 8 weeks, randomized half to begin day 1, then repeat for all patients with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after cladribine. Also may repeat for those with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after delayed rituximab. MRD tests used for the primary objective will be limited to BMBx IHC, blood FACS or blood consensus PCR, all CLIA certified. Blood MRD relapse is defined as FACS positivity or low blood counts (ANC less than 1500/microl, Plt less than 100,000/microl, or Hgb less than 11). Stratification: 68 patients with 0 and 62 with 1 prior course of cladribine. Statistics: 80% power to discriminate rates of MRD of 5 vs 25%, or 10 vs 35% Non-randomized arm: 20 with HCLv will begin rituximab with cladribine. Accrual Ceiling: 152 patients (130 HCL, 2 extra HCL if needed, and 20 HCLv.)

Detailed Description

Background: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is highly responsive to but not curable by cladribine (CdA). HCL responds to rituximab, which is not yet standard therapy for HCL. Patients with the CD25-negative variant (HCLv) respond poorly to initial cladribine but do respond to rituximab in anecdotal reports. Purine analogs cladribine and pentostatin have similar efficacy for HCL, both inhibiting DNA synthesis selectively in HCL cells. Cladribine is effective after just 1 cycle. Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which induces apoptosis and either complement or antibody dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC or CDC). Patients in complete remission (CR) to cladribine have minimal residual disease (MRD) by immunohistochemistry of the bone marrow biopsy (BMBx IHC), a risk for early relapse. Tests for HCL MRD in blood or marrow include flow cytometry (FACS) or PCR using consensus primers. The most sensitive HCL MRD test is real-time quantitative PCR using sequence-specific primers (RQ-PCR). In studies with limited follow-up, MRD detected by tests other than RQ-PCR can be eliminated by rituximab after cladribine in > 90% of patients, but MRD rates after purine analog alone are unknown. Simultaneous cladribine and rituximab might be superior or inferior to delaying rituximab until detection of MRD. Only 4 HCL-specific trials are listed on Cancer.gov: a phase II trial of cladribine followed 4 weeks later by 8 weekly doses of rituximab, and phase I-II trials of recombinant immunotoxins targeting CD22 (BL22, HA22) and CD25 (LMB-2). Objective: To determine if HCL MRD differs at 6 months after cladribine with or without rituximab administered concurrently with cladribine. Eligibility: HCL with 0-1 prior courses of cladribine or pentostatin and treatment indicated. Design: Cladribine 0.15 mg/Kg/day times 5 doses each by 2hr i.v. infusion (days 1-5) Rituximab 375 mg/m2/week times 8 weeks, randomized half to begin day 1, then repeat for all patients with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after cladribine. Also may repeat for those with blood-MRD relapse at least 6 months after delayed rituximab. MRD tests used for the primary objective will be limited to BMBx IHC, blood FACS, and bone marrow aspirate FACS, all CLIA certified. Blood MRD relapse is defined as FACS positivity or low blood counts (ANC less than 1500/microl, Plt less than 100,000/microl, or Hgb less than 11) attributed to HCL. Patients FACS-negative in both blood and bone marrow aspirate are considered MRD-negative complete response (CR) regardless of blood counts. Randomization: 68 HCL patients with 0 and 62 with 1 prior course of purine analog Statistics: 80% power to discriminate rates of MRD of 5 vs. 25%, or 10 vs. 35% Non-randomized HCLv arm: 20 patients with HCLv will begin rituximab with cladribine. Non-randomized HCL arm: 25 newly diagnosed patients will be enrolled to receive rituximab beginning day 1, but beginning before the 1st dose of cladribine, rather than after. Accrual ceiling: 177 patients (155 HCL, 2 extra HCL if needed, and 20 HCLv)

Overall Status Recruiting
Start Date 2009-04-14
Completion Date 2025-12-31
Primary Completion Date 2022-12-31
Phase Phase 2
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Response Rate 6 months
Secondary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
MRD-free survival and disease- free survival 1 and 6 months after cladribine
response to delayed rituximab for relapse 1 and 6 months after cladribine
overall response Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
blood MRD-free survival Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
evaluation for BMBx 6 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab, then yearly until 2.5 years, then every other year
Overall response and MRD Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
T- and B-cells Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
characterization of monoclonal immunoglobulin rearrangements Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
overall survival Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
correlate bone marrow MRI signal with bone marrow biopsy Every 3 months after cladribine or delayed rituximab for 1 year, then every 6 months until 2.5 years, then yearly
Enrollment 177
Condition
Intervention

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: Cladribine

Description: Cladribine 0.15 mg/Kg/day by 2-hour i.v. infusion days 1-5. The infusion time may be changed to 1 hour at the discretion of the PI.

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: Rituximab

Description: Rituximab 375 mg/m2 i.v. infusion every week x8, begin day 1 in half of randomized patients and in all HCLv patients, and then again in all patients at least 6 months later when HCL is detected by blood FACS.

Eligibility

Criteria:

- INCLUSION CRITERIA: Evidence of HCL by flow cytometry, reviewed by the Laboratory of Pathology, NCI, including positivity for CD19, CD22, CD20, and CD11c. BMBx consistent with HCL, reviewed by Laboratory of Pathology, NCI. BMBx may be negative in HCLv in patients with increasing peripheral blood HCLv cells and spleen size. Treatment indicated based on demonstration of at least one of the following no more than 4 weeks from the time of enrollment, and no less than 6 months after prior purine analog and no less than 4 weeks after other prior treatment, if applicable. - Neutropenia (ANC less than 1000 cells/microl). - Anemia (Hgb less than 10g/dL). - Thrombocytopenia (Plt less than 100,000/microl). - Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) of greater than 5,000 cells/microL - Symptomatic splenomegaly. - Enlarging lymph nodes greater than 2cm. - Repeated infections requiring oral or i.v. antibiotics. - Patients who have eligible blood counts within 4 weeks from enrollment will not be considered ineligible if subsequent blood counts prior to enrollment fluctuate and become ineligible up until the time of enrollment. No prior purine analog therapy except up to 1 prior course of cladribine. No prior rituximab unless HCLv patient. ECOG performance status (78) of 0-3. Patients must be able to understand and give informed consent. Women of child-bearing age and all men must use birth control of any type until at least 12 months after the last dose of therapy. Creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 or creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 60 ml/ml. Bilirubin less than or equal to 2 unless consistent with Gilbert s (total/direct greater than 5), ALT and AST less than or equal to 2.5 times upper limits of normal. No other therapy (i.e. chemotherapy, interferon) for 4 weeks prior to study entry, or cladribine for 6 months prior to study entry. Age at least 18 Men and women of reproductive potential must agree to use an acceptable method of birth control during treatment and for twelve months after completion of treatment. Subject has provided written informed consent Patients must be willing to co-enroll in the investigator s companion protocol 10-C-0066 titled Collection of Human Samples to Study Hairy Cell and other Leukemias, and to Develop Recombinant Immunotoxins for Cancer Treatment . EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Presence of active untreated infection Uncontrolled coronary disease or NYHA class III-IV heart disease. Known infection with HIV. Hepatitis B is allowed only if viral load is undetectable andif on anti-hepatitis B therapy like Entecavir. Hepatitis C is allowed only if viral load is undetectable, and if the patient has received curative therapy. Patients with documented history of no response to cladribine, and without 50% improvement in platelets, hemoglobin or granulocytes. This exclusion does not apply to HCLv. These patients are eligible regardless of prior response to CDA. Pregnant or lactating women. Presence of active 2nd malignancy requiring treatment. 2nd malignancies with low activity which do not require treatment (i.e. low grade prostate cancer, basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer) do not constitute exclusions. Inability to comply with study and/or follow-up procedures. Presence of CNS disease, which is symptomatic. At the Investigator s discretion, receipt of a live vaccine within 4 weeks prior to randomization. Efficacy and/or safety of immunization during periods of B-cell depletion have not been adequately studied. It is recommended that a patient s vaccination record and possible requirements be reviewed. Per the investigator s discretion, the patient may have any required vaccination/booster administered at least 4 weeks prior to the initiation of study treatment. Review of the patient s immunization status for the following vaccinations is recommended: tetanus; diphtheria; influenza; pneumococcal polysaccharide; Varicella; measles, mumps and rubella (MMR); and hepatitis B. Patients who are considered to be at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and for whom the investigator has determined that immunization is indicated should complete the entire HBV vaccine series at least 4 weeks prior to participation in the study.

Gender:

All

Minimum Age:

18 Years

Maximum Age:

N/A

Healthy Volunteers:

No

Overall Official
Last Name Role Affiliation
Robert J Kreitman, M.D. Principal Investigator National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Overall Contact

Last Name: Julie C Feurtado, R.N.

Phone: (301) 480-6186

Email: [email protected]

Location
Facility: Status: Contact: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact National Cancer Institute Referral Office (888) NCI-1937
Location Countries

United States

Verification Date

2021-05-04

Responsible Party

Type: Sponsor

Keywords
Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Number Of Arms 3
Arm Group

Label: 1

Type: Experimental

Description: Cladribine with immediate Rituximab

Label: 2

Type: Active Comparator

Description: Cladribine with Rituximab delayed by at least 6 months after Cladribine if and when minimal residual disease is detected

Label: 3

Type: Experimental

Description: Non-randomized group receving Cladribine with immediate Rituximab (before rather than after the 1st of the 5 daily doses of cladribine on day 1)

Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment

Primary Purpose: Treatment

Masking: None (Open Label)

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