Whole Grains, Gastric Emptying and Glycemic Response

Glycemic Response of Whole Grain Wheat Meals

Sponsors

Lead Sponsor: Purdue University

Source Purdue University
Brief Summary

Whole grains have been associated with controlled glycemic response and increased satiety compared to refined grains. However, the properties of whole grains which are responsible for these purported improved health outcomes are still unclear. The current study investigated the extent of whole grains' low glycemic property when food properties are controlled, and how this relates to gastric emptying rate and glycemic response.

Detailed Description

It is generally assumed that whole grain foods confer a health benefit in regards to moderated glycemia and increased satiety compared to foods made from refined grains. However, the extent of whole grains' low glycemic property may be limited by certain factors. For example, physical properties such as viscosity or particle size and differing starch digestion rates of whole grain foods may strongly influence glycemic response and gastric emptying rate. In this study, whole and refined grain wheat porridges were prepared from materials originating from the same milling source, with matched pairs for viscosity, starch and dietary fiber contents, and particle size. Subjects consumed wheat porridges containing 13C-labeled octanoic acid for assessment of gastric emptying rate, and they wore a continuous glucose monitor for measuring postprandial glucose levels. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that the purported moderated glycemic response and slow gastric emptying rate are dependent on how these foods are processed. This work highlights the need to consider specific properties of whole grain foods for desired health outcomes in order to optimize the design of whole grain-based foods.

Overall Status Completed
Start Date February 16, 2017
Completion Date May 31, 2017
Primary Completion Date May 31, 2017
Phase N/A
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Gastric emptying Acute study, 4 hours measurement after consumption of test food
Glycemic response Acute study, 4 hours measurement after consumption of test food
Appetitive behavior Acute study, 4 hours measurement after consumption of test food.
Enrollment 16
Condition
Intervention

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Cracked whole wheat porridge

Description: Large particle whole wheat porridge was tested for gastric emptying rate, glycemic response and appetitive response.

Arm Group Label: Cracked whole wheat porridge

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Semolina wheat porridge

Description: Large particle refined wheat porridge was tested for gastric emptying rate, glycemic response and appetitive response.

Arm Group Label: Semolina wheat porridge

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Whole wheat flour porridge

Description: Small particle whole wheat porridge was tested for gastric emptying rate, glycemic response and appetitive response.

Arm Group Label: Whole wheat flour porridge

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Refined wheat flour porridge

Description: Small particle refined wheat porridge was tested for gastric emptying rate, glycemic response and appetitive response.

Arm Group Label: Refined wheat flour porridge

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Refined wheat flour porridge,fine bran

Description: Small particle refined wheat porridge with small particle bran was tested for gastric emptying rate, glycemic response and appetitive response.

Arm Group Label: Refined wheat flour porridge,fine bran

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Refined wheat flour porridge,coarse bran

Description: Small particle refined wheat porridge with large particle bran was tested for gastric emptying rate, glycemic response and appetitive response.

Arm Group Label: Refined wheat flour porridge,coarse bran

Eligibility

Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria:

- Aged between 18-50 years old

- Healthy, normal BMI (18.5 kg/m²

- Be free of any gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases

- Be free of any wheat allergies and gluten intolerances or sensitivities

- Not be pregnant or nursing

Exclusion Criteria:

- No medical problems

- No medication

- Pregnant or nursing

Gender: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 50 Years

Healthy Volunteers: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Location
Facility: Purdue University
Location Countries

United States

Verification Date

March 2018

Responsible Party

Type: Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation: Purdue University

Investigator Full Name: Bruce R. Hamaker

Investigator Title: Professor

Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Number Of Arms 6
Arm Group

Label: Cracked whole wheat porridge

Type: Experimental

Description: Large particle whole wheat porridge

Label: Semolina wheat porridge

Type: Experimental

Description: Large particle refined wheat porridge

Label: Whole wheat flour porridge

Type: Experimental

Description: Small particle whole wheat porridge

Label: Refined wheat flour porridge

Type: Experimental

Description: Small particle refined wheat porridge

Label: Refined wheat flour porridge,fine bran

Type: Experimental

Description: Small particle refined wheat porridge with small particle bran

Label: Refined wheat flour porridge,coarse bran

Type: Experimental

Description: Small particle refined wheat porridge with large particle bran

Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment

Primary Purpose: Basic Science

Masking: Single (Participant)

Source: ClinicalTrials.gov