Effect of Different Exercise Approaches on Balance and Proprioception in Individuals With Pes Planus

Effect of Different Exercise Approaches on Balance and Proprioception in Individuals With Pes Planus


Lead Sponsor: Istanbul Medipol University Hospital

Source Istanbul Medipol University Hospital
Brief Summary

Pes planus; It can be defined as the valgus of the hindfoot while loading the foot, the disappearance of the medial longitudinal arch in the midfoot, and the supination of the forefoot relative to the hindfoot. It may also occur due to the fact that the medial longitudinal arch in the foot is lower than the required height according to the anatomical position. The parts of the foot that touch the ground are anatomically healthy in a person; They are the heads of the calcaneus tuberositas calcanei on the back of the foot and the 5 metatarsal bones on the front of the foot. In the standing position, 25% of our body weight is on the tuber calcanei, while 25% is on the 5 metatarsal bones. In individuals with pes planus, convergence of the sole of the midfoot to the ground may even result in the sole of the midfoot touching the ground at its advanced levels. It is one of the common foot deformities.

Detailed Description

Pes planus can cause symptoms and dysfunction that are symptomatic or severe enough to limit patients' quality of life. Degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon may occur due to trauma, neuroarthropathy, neuromuscular disease and inflammatory arthritis. Among these, the most common cause of pes planus is the degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon. The highest arch of the foot, the medical longitudinal arch calcaneus, talus, navicular, cuneiform and 1-2-3. It is formed by metatarsals. It is effective in the distribution of the load on the feet. Plantar ligaments are important in protecting the dome of the foot. They used many definitions known as pes planus, that is, flat feet in the literature. Weak foot, relaxed foot, pes valgus, congenital hypermobile flat foot, hypermobile flat foot, flaccid flat food, talipes calcaneovalgus, compensated talipes equinus can be given as examples. Balance disorders and general joint hypermobility are among the clinical symptoms of pes planus. In a study conducted with 100 individuals aged between 18 and 45, when the balance time of individuals without pes planus was compared with the balance time of individuals with pes planus; It was determined that individuals without pes planus had better balance times. It has been determined that as the degree of pes planus increases, the time to stay in balance decreases in individuals. Stretching exercises; It is defined as the pulling force applied to lengthen the muscle and connective tissues in the human body. Stretching exercises are divided into 4 in themselves. These; dynamic stretching, static stretching, ballistic stretching and PNF stretching. Mobility exercises; It consists of low-speed, variable-intensity, repetitive, passive movements applied to joints and ligaments within the normal range of joint motion. Stability exercises; It is defined as the ability to control joint movement or position by coordinating the movements of the surrounding tissues and neuromuscular system.

Overall Status Recruiting
Start Date 2022-09-17
Completion Date 2022-12-30
Primary Completion Date 2022-10-17
Phase N/A
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Star Excursion Balance Test 4 weeks
Range of Motion Measurement 4 weeks
Berg Balance Test 4 weeks
Weight-bearing Lunge Test Weight-bearing lunge test 4 weeks
Secondary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Functional Reach Test 4 weeks
Manual Muscle Test 4 weeks
Enrollment 40

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Mobility and Stability Exercise

Description: Mobility and stability exercises were given to the first group, while stretching exercises were given to the other group. The number of repetitions and content of the exercises were determined before the treatment, and the same repetitions were given to both groups.

Arm Group Label: Mobility and Stability Exercise

Intervention Type: Other

Intervention Name: Stretching Exercise

Description: Balance and reaching exercise, heel rise, towel picking exercise, 4-way resistance exercise, half kneeling knee to wall, single leg ankle, single leg balance with leg stretched, ice bottle rolling under the feet were performed in the first group. Achilles stretching, wall side gastrosoleus stretching, sitting plantar fascia stretching, towel gastrosoleus stretching, sitting dorsiflexion stretching with teraban were performed in the second group.

Arm Group Label: Stretching Exercise



Inclusion Criteria: - Having mild and moderate pes planus, - Volunteering of individuals, - Being between the age group of 18-40, - Having experienced at least one inflammatory symptom (pain, swelling, etc.) - Not having any systemic, locomotor and foot related diseases, sensory loss, diabetic and peripheral neuropathy. Exclusion Criteria: - Having had a serious lower extremity injury in the last 6 months, - Getting a full score from the balance test, - Having ligament rupture in the ankle.



Minimum Age:

18 Years

Maximum Age:

40 Years

Healthy Volunteers:

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Overall Contact

Last Name: HAZAL GENÇ, PhD

Phone: 05413204291

Email: [email protected]

Facility: Status: Contact: Medipol hospital HAZAL genç, phd
Location Countries


Verification Date


Responsible Party

Type: Principal Investigator

Investigator Affiliation: Istanbul Medipol University Hospital

Investigator Full Name: hazal genc

Investigator Title: Principal Investigator

Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Number Of Arms 2
Arm Group

Label: Mobility and Stability Exercise

Type: Experimental

Description: The patients were divided into two groups. Exercises were applied to both groups for 4 weeks.

Label: Stretching Exercise

Type: Active Comparator

Description: The patients were divided into two groups. Exercises were applied to both groups for 4 weeks.

Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment

Intervention Model Description: It is planned to randomly divide 40 individuals diagnosed with pes planus by the physician into two. In these groups, there should be a pes planus problem on both sides. The first group will be given stretching exercises, while the second group will be given mobility and stability exercises.

Primary Purpose: Treatment

Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)

Masking Description: Evaluation and treatment will be carried out by different physiotherapists. In this way, it is aimed to provide an objective evaluation.

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