Expansion and Reevaluation of the Implicit Association Test in Suicide Ideators and Suicide Attempters

Expansion and Reevaluation of the Implicit Association Test in Suicide Ideators and Suicide Attempters

Sponsors

Lead Sponsor: University of Bern

Collaborator: University Hospital of Psychiatry, Department Neuropsychopharmacology and Brain Imaging

Source University of Bern
Brief Summary

A new approach to investigate suicidal processes belongs to the broader neurocognitive picture and are so-called implicit associations. In dual process models of information processing a second functioning mode, the automatic processing mode, complements the conscious processing. Suicidal persons tend to have a stronger implicit association with "death" than non-suicidal persons. In this study, implicit associations between different unconscious cognitive constructs are compared among suicidal and non-suicidal patients. Therefore, an adapted version of the computer-based reaction time task (IAT-S) will be used. Four different versions of IATs are tested in this study. In the first version the implicit association between "self / others" and "death / life" is assessed (1). The second and third version measures the emotional evaluation of "death" (2) and "life" (3). In addition, in the fourth version the implicit association between death / life and internal / external locus of control is assessed (4). The implicit associations of these four IAT-S versions are compared between three groups: patients with suicidal behavior, patients with suicidal ideation, and a clinical group without previous suicide attempts and without suicidal ideation. The following hypotheses are made: in all four versions of the IAT-S, patients with previous suicidal behavior will have stronger implicit associations: between "self" and "death" as well as "death" and "internal locus of control" compared to all other groups. With a more "positive" evaluation of "death" and a more "negative" evaluation of "life" than all other participants.

Detailed Description

In this study, four versions of the suicide-specific implicit association tests (IAT-S) are carried out. Previous studies have shown that suicidal persons have stronger associations between the constructs "self" and "death". Furthermore, the strength of these implicit associations increases the risk of suicidal behavior in the follow-up period of six months by a factor of six. In these previous studies, the implicit "self-death association" (the so-called death-identity bias) was investigated. This study will additionally examine an implicit emotional evaluation (death-evaluation-bias). Therefore, two new versions of the IAT-S, which measure how death vs. life are emotionally evaluated, are being tested. In addition, a fourth version of the IAT-S was added and aims to clarify the implicit association between death / life and internal / external locus of control. Previous studies have shown that an internal locus of control is a protective factor and an external locus of control a risk factor for suicide attempts. In the present study, these four IAT-S versions are carried out with different groups of patients: patients with a suicide attempt (1), patients with suicide ideation (2) and patients with neither a suicide attempt nor suicide ideation (3). This cross sectional design allows us to test for group differences in regard to unconscious implicit associations. Hypothesis are described separately for each version of the IAT-S. Death association: patients in group 1 will have a higher implicit association between self and death than patients in group 2 and that patients in group 2 have a significantly higher implicit association between self and death than patients in group 3. Death evaluation: patients in group 1 will have more "positive" evaluations of "death" than patients in group 2 and patients in group 2 have a more "positive" evaluations of death than patients in group 3. Locus of control: patients in group 1 will have a stronger association between internal locus of control and death (a) and external locus of control and life (b) than patients in group 2, and that patients in group 2 have a significantly stronger association between internal locus of control and death (a) and external locus of control and life (b) than patients in group 3.

Overall Status Recruiting
Start Date May 27, 2020
Completion Date May 2022
Primary Completion Date May 2022
Study Type Observational
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Implicit Association Test (IAT) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Secondary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire - Revised One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Mee-Bunney Psychological Pain Assessment Scale (MBPPAS) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Positive Mental Health Scale (PMH-scale) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Internal External Locus of Control-4 (IE-4) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) One assessment at baseline after study information and informed consent was given
Enrollment 276
Condition
Eligibility

Sampling Method: Probability Sample

Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria: - Age 18-65 years - Ability and willingness to participate in the study - Ability to give consent Exclusion Criteria: - Foreign language - Diagnostic criteria: Psychoses, strong cognitive impairments (e.g. dementia)

Gender: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: 65 Years

Overall Official
Overall Contact

Last Name: Anja C. Gysin-Maillart, Ph.D.

Phone: 031 632 88 11

Phone Ext.: +41

Email: [email protected]

Location
Facility: Status: Contact: Investigator: University Hospital of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern Anja C Gysin-Maillart, Ph.D. 0041 31 632 88 11 [email protected] Anja C Gysin-Maillart, Ph.D. Principal Investigator
Location Countries

Switzerland

Verification Date

October 2020

Responsible Party

Type: Sponsor

Keywords
Has Expanded Access No
Condition Browse
Arm Group

Label: Suicide Attempters (1)

Description: patients with a suicide attempt

Label: Suicide Ideators (2)

Description: patients with suicidal ideation

Label: Control Group (3)

Description: patients without suicide attempt and without suicide ideation

Acronym IAT-S
Patient Data No
Study Design Info

Observational Model: Case-Control

Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional

Source: ClinicalTrials.gov