Development of a Urine-Based Point-of-Care Test for Adherence to Antiretroviral Drugs

APT-POCT-01: An Open Label, Pharmacokinetic Study of Plasma/Urine/Salivary Drug Concentrations Over Fourteen Days Following Drug Intake Cessation, In HIV-Uninfected Healthy Volunteers Dosing to Steady-state to Further Development of Point of Care Diagnostic Testing

Sponsors

Lead Sponsor: Rhonda Brand

Collaborator: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)

Source University of Pittsburgh
Brief Summary

This is a single-center, open label study to identify adherence levels of commonly prescribed FDA-approved antiretroviral agents by tracking the decline of drug concentrations in plasma, urine and saliva following abrupt drug cessation in HIV-negative adults. Results from this study may provide support for development of a point of care urine testing device to monitor drug adherence.

Detailed Description

Poor adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) incurs costs for patients, health systems, and society. Non-adherence to ARV precedes viral breakthrough and offers opportunities for health-care professionals to intervene. There is a need for accurate, affordable, rapid, and objective monitoring of adherence to be deployed as a companion diagnostic to ARV therapy. Self-reported questionnaires, physician and nurse adherence consistently over-estimate adherence, and pill counts, and pharmacy returns do not yield sufficient precision for individual patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has the advantage tracking medication intake, but sample storage and processing requirements, turnaround times and relatively high cost preclude their widespread deployment. There is a real clinical need for point-of-care adherence testing, which will have high clinical utility by allowing targeting of adherence support and monitoring, better medication review, and integration with community support.

Since the clinical utility of any point-of-care test (POCT) will be its negative predictive value, this trial has been designed as a 'tail' study to track the decline of drug concentrations in plasma, urine and saliva following abrupt drug cessation. Such a study will require dosing to healthy participants who are dosed to steady-state prior to treatment discontinuation.

Serial measurement of drug concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine will be used to develop population-based models which adequately describe the kinetics of elimination and population variability in drug exposure. These models will be used to simulate population drug exposures from which target cut-offs are derived for development of a POCT device.

Approximately thirty healthy, HIV-uninfected participants will be enrolled and equally assigned to one of two ARV dosing arms using a permuted block design randomization scheme.

ARM 1: dolutegravir 50 mg + emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg once daily for 15 days

ARM 2: dolutegravir 50 mg + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg + lamivudine 300 mg once daily for 15 days

To assess ARV pharmacokinetics during dosing and over 14 days following ARV cessation, blood, urine, and saliva samples will be collected at Days 1, 2, 8, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 22 and 29.

Overall Status Recruiting
Start Date August 31, 2020
Completion Date December 31, 2022
Primary Completion Date December 31, 2021
Phase Early Phase 1
Study Type Interventional
Primary Outcome
Measure Time Frame
Maximum concentration (Cmax) of dolutegravir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir alafenamide, and metabolites Pre-dose; 24, 168, and 336 after the first dose; then 24, 48, 72, 98, 168, and 336 hours after the final dose
Time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of dolutegravir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir alafenamide, and metabolites Pre-dose; 24, 168, and 336 after the first dose; then 24, 48, 72, 98, 168, and 336 hours after the final dose
Minimum concentration (Cmin) of dolutegravir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir alafenamide, and metabolites Pre-dose; 24, 168, and 336 after the first dose; then 24, 48, 72, 98, 168, and 336 hours after the final dose
Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of dolutegravir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, tenofovir alafenamide, and metabolites Pre-dose; 24, 168, and 336 after the first dose; then 24, 48, 72, 98, 168, and 336 hours after the final dose
Half-life (t½) of dolutegravir, emtricitabine, lamivudine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and tenofovir alafenamide Pre-dose; 24, 168, and 336 after the first dose; then 24, 48, 72, 98, 168, and 336 hours after the final dose
Enrollment 30
Condition
Intervention

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: dolutegravir oral tablet 50mg

Description: Tivicay® (dolutegravir, DTG), a HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), is FDA-approved in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and in pediatric patients weighing at least 30kg. Tivicay® 50mg tablets [GlaxoSmithKline] are yellow, round, film-coated, biconvex tablets debossed with "SV 572" on one side and "50" on the other side. The inactive ingredients in each tablet are D-mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone K29/32, sodium starch glycolate, and sodium stearyl fumarate. The tablet film-coating contains the inactive ingredients iron oxide yellow macrogol/PEG, polyvinyl alcohol-part hydrolyzed, talc, and titanium dioxide.

Other Name: Tivicay®, DTG

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide oral tablet 200mg/25mg

Description: Descovy® (emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide, FTC/TAF) is a combination of two HIV nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) FDA-approved in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients weighing at least 35kg. Descovy® 200 mg/25 mg tablets [Gilead] are blue, rectangular-shaped, and film-coated with "GSI" debossed on one side and "225" on the other side. The inactive ingredients are croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing indigo carmine aluminum lake, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, and titanium dioxide.

Arm Group Label: dolutegravir + emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide

Other Name: Descovy®, FTC/TAF

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate oral tablet 300mg

Description: Viread® (tenofovir DF, TDF) is a nucleotide analog HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a hepatitis B reverse transcriptase inhibitor FDA-approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents and for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and pediatric patients 2 years of age and older weighing at least 10kg. Viread® 300mg tablets [Gilead] are almond-shaped, light blue, film-coated tablets containing 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, which is equivalent to 245 mg of tenofovir disoproxil, are debossed with "GILEAD" and "4331" on one side and with "300" on the other side. The inactive ingredients in each tablet are croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and pregelatinized starch. Viread® 300mg tablets are coated with Opadry II Y-30-10671-A, which contains FD&C blue #2 aluminum lake, hypromellose 2910, lactose monohydrate, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.

Arm Group Label: dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + lamivudine

Other Name: Viread®, tenofovir DF, TDF

Intervention Type: Drug

Intervention Name: lamivudine oral tablet 300mg

Description: Lamivudine (Epivir®, 3TC) is a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor FDA-approved in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients at least 3 months of age. Lamivudine 300mg tablets [Apotex Inc.] are gray, modified diamond-shaped, film-coated, and engraved with "LMV 300" on one side and APO on the reverse side. Inactive ingredients are black iron oxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, and titanium dioxide.

Arm Group Label: dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + lamivudine

Other Name: Epivir®, 3TC

Eligibility

Criteria:

Inclusion Criteria:

1. At least 18 years of age at screening, verified per site standard operating procedure (SOP)

2. Not pregnant or breastfeeding

3. Availability to return for all study visits, barring unforeseen circumstances

4. Willing and able to

- communicate in English

- provide written informed consent to take part in the study

- provide adequate locator information, as defined in site SOP

- follow the assigned dosing protocol and maintain an accurate dosing log

5. Must agree not to participate in other concurrent interventional and/or drug trials

6. Understands and agrees to local sexually transmitted infections (STI) reporting requirements

7. HIV-1 seronegative at screening

8. Must be in general good health in the opinion of the investigator

9. For female participants of reproductive potential: Using an effective method of contraception and intending to continue use of an effective method for the duration of study participation and for 8 weeks after the last dose of study drug. Acceptable methods include:

- hormonal methods

- IUD (intrauterine device)

- sterilization of participant or partner

Exclusion Criteria:

1. Participant reports any of the following at Screening:

1. Has plans to relocate away from the study site area during the period of study participation

2. Pregnant, less than 3 months post-partum, or lactating

3. Intends to become pregnant during the period of study participation

4. History of adverse reaction to study drugs

5. History of osteoporosis or osteopenia

6. PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or (PEP) post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV exposure within 3 months - prior to screening

7. Participating in another research study involving drugs or medical devices within 3 months or 5 half-lives (if known) prior to enrollment

8. History of gastric bypass

9. History of inflammatory bowel disease

10. Currently taking or anticipation of taking any medications on list of prohibited medications as specified in section 4.10.

11. Unwilling or unable to comply with study procedures, medications and visits

12. Allergies to dyes, excipients and components of drugs

13. Condomless insertive or receptive anal intercourse with more than one partner in the past six months

14. Known HIV-positive sexual partner within the last 6 months

15. History of STI in the last 3 months

2. Has any of the following laboratory abnormalities at Screening:

Note: Grade is per Version 2.1 of the Division of AIDS (DAIDS) Toxicity Table

1. Hemoglobin Grade 1 or higher

2. Platelet count Grade 1 or higher

3. White blood cell count Grade 2 or higher

4. Calculated creatinine clearance ≤ 70 mL/minute using the Cockcroft-Gault equation

5. Grade 2 or higher ALT and/or AST (i.e., ≥ 2.5x the site laboratory upper limit of normal [ULN])

6. Total bilirubin Grade 3 or higher

7. Positive for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)

8. Confirmed positive for Hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab)

3. Has any other condition that, in the opinion of the Principal Investigator or designee, would preclude informed consent, make study participation unsafe, complicate interpretation of study outcome data, or otherwise interfere with achieving study objectives

Gender: All

Minimum Age: 18 Years

Maximum Age: N/A

Healthy Volunteers: Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Overall Official
Overall Contact

Last Name: Ken Ho, MD

Phone: 412-383-1675

Email: [email protected]

Location
Facility: Status: Contact: Contact Backup: Investigator: HIV/AIDS Clinical Research Unit / University of Pittsburgh Sherri Karas 412-383-1313 [email protected] Sharon Riddler, MD Sub-Investigator Deborah McMahon, MD Sub-Investigator Bernard Macatangay, MD Sub-Investigator Madhu Choudhary, MD Sub-Investigator Ken Ho, MD Principal Investigator Rhonda Brand, PhD Sub-Investigator Stacey Edick, PA-C Sub-Investigator
Location Countries

United States

Verification Date

September 2020

Responsible Party

Type: Sponsor-Investigator

Investigator Affiliation: University of Pittsburgh

Investigator Full Name: Rhonda Brand

Investigator Title: Associate Professor

Keywords
Has Expanded Access No
Number Of Arms 2
Arm Group

Label: dolutegravir + emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide

Type: Experimental

Description: Tivicay® (dolutegravir 50 mg tablet) + Descovy® (emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir alafenamide 25 mg combination tablet), one tablet of each taken by mouth once daily for 15 days

Label: dolutegravir + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + lamivudine

Type: Experimental

Description: Tivicay® (dolutegravir 50 mg tablet) + Viread® (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300 mg tablet) + lamivudine 300 mg tablet, one tablet of each taken by mouth once daily for 15 days

Acronym APTAMER
Patient Data No
Study Design Info

Allocation: Randomized

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment

Intervention Model Description: randomized, open-label

Primary Purpose: Other

Masking: None (Open Label)

Source: ClinicalTrials.gov